WESSEL HUISMAN (Breda/NL, 1954) is an international established artist from The Netherlands. In 1981 he graduated with honour  from the Radboud University Nijmegen – department of Economic and Social History. In  1984 he finished his study at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design Arnhem/NL with excellent results. Later that year he became managing director of the same Academy(ArtEZ); a position he hold until 2006. Since then he has devoted himself fulltime to his artistic career.

Biographical notes
Wessel Huisman belongs to the elite of Dutch artists. Born in 1954 in Breda, Netherlands, Huisman graduated in 1981 from Radboud University Nijmegen, majoring in Economic and Social History. In 1984, he completed his studies at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Arnhem, becoming its managing director later that year and holding this post until 2006. After practising in various media, Huisman decided in the 1990’s to focus solely on painting, a medium that he loves and respects. For years he only used all kinds of grey, black and white layers to build up his paintings. This process can take several month up to a year or more. Since he was interested in light and light contrasts, he skipped the outspoken colours. More recently however he has incorporated other hues, like blue and red, to specify the “mood” of the light.
Like the Dutch masters Rembrandt and Vermeer, the use of light and its manipulation within spaces, is a fascination Wessel Huisman shares. He is famous for the light and clarity in his paintings. During the last twenty five years Wessel Huisman has realized that he has a kind of light archive in his head. Very often he recognizes light circumstances related to his own youth when he sees photographs taken under totally different circumstances. Light triggers his memory like a smell can do. You could say that Wessel Huisman is an expert on memories as well. It is no coincidence that he studied history in university before he went to the academy. The past has always fascinated him. It is not so much a romantic longing for the past, but rather the notion that earlier experiences form references to cope with the present day.
Wessel Huisman’s works have been exhibited through Europe, including the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Italy where in 2013 and 2015 he won the “Lorenzo IL Magnifico” prize at the Florence Biennale. His works have also been exhibited in China, Japan, South Korea, Vietnam and the USA.
The Dutch Government, as well as various local and international corporations like Heineken and Swedish SKF Bearings, are collectors of Huisman’s works. Private collectors include relatives of the Dutch Royal Family, the Joop van den Ende Holding and Dirk van der Broek, founder of one of the largest family-owned businesses in the Netherlands. The artist’s works have been commissioned by Holland America Cruise lines (2010) and The Dutch General Consulate in Düsseldorf, Germany (2000).
Vital gestures
Whilst going to the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Arnhem in 1979, Wessel Huisman studied history at the Radboud University in Nijmegen. In 1981 he graduated with honours in social and economic history. Furthermore he specialised in philosophy, philology and empiric sociology. Although he has never worked as a scientist his artistic oeuvre reveals an intriguing and unique interest in the past. Thinking in terms of time episodes and historical development – a kind of ‘mind travelling in time’- he has decisively determined his orientation not only on the past but also with the present. His artistic activities brought him to the realisation that his scientific interest and the fascination for his own past spring from the same source.

Light
Wessel Huisman paints light. As a starting point he often utilises old black and white photographs. He is not interested in the nostalgic images as such but is fascinated by the working of memories and how they affect the way one experiences the present. During the last twenty years he has noticed that the light captured in these photographs and in his paintings offer him an opportunity to travel through time. How it works? For example in a picture by Jacob Olie from 1896 he recognises the light circumstances and the atmosphere of his childhood in Breda, in the south of the Netherlands. Impressions he strongly rediscovered in the villages along the Red River, north of Hanoi in November 2008. Unexpectedly, the past is present in the now, just as a long forgotten smell can recall a particular event.

So, light can give you back your history, not only as a thought or memory but as a vital and intense experience. Light not only enables you to see things, it also strongly influences the sentiment with which you experience your reality. It is in your private history that these personal references arise, which determine your relationship with the present almost like a fingerprint. Huisman has also noticed that – although the sources from which his paintings develop are closely linked to his intimate history – he is able to lead spectators back to their own hidden memories. From his childhood onwards Wessel Huisman has registered light circumstances, which have formed a kind of light archive. When you look at a painting, there is much more going on than registers within the image. Hardly aware of the mechanism, you almost automatically bring in your own history, fed by numerous visual impulses, far beyond your consciousness. It is that phenomenon that Huisman triggers. He calls attention to what images and memories people carry with them. He then releases them and lets them slip in the now.

Paint
Paint is the important connection between the figurative and the abstract. The language a painter uses is ‘simply‘ ‘putting paint on a surface’. This language has a very complex and delicate grammar, which directs both figurative and abstract painting. In terms of image, the only distinction between the two is that an abstract painting refers to itself and other abstract paintings, whereas a figurative painting refers to another reality and gives you the suggestion that you see what it is. According to Huisman the power of this illusion is one of the great treasures of painting, and he loves to play with this aspect of recognition. Aware of the shared origin of painting, he introduces abstract elements and accents in his painted illusions. In between the layers that make the figurative image grow, he orders accents that give the presentation depth and stability; they provide movement and rhythm. But beyond this, they give his paintings a sense of balance and clarity, crucial for their expression.

Another notable feature of Huisman´s way of working is the specific interplay between the figurative elements and the material expression within his paintings. Over a period of time he has reduced the number of colours into black and white, in fact a countless number of more or less transparent shades of grey applied to the canvas layer after layer. A process that takes months, sometimes even years. Although photographic images provide a starting point, in the end it is only painted reality that counts. In this he gives an adequate reply to the infinite more or less digitally manipulated pictures that flood the world. Opposite to the indifferent glossy expression of a print, he confronts us with the richness of a paint surface. Or, reminiscent of the Italian architect Adolfo Natalini who wrote in one of his catalogues: ‘…whereas photography represents reality, Huisman’s method of painting enables him to penetrate the surface of images, to fathom the matter and to prolong the exposure time into a narration…’ .

Meaning
Wessel Huisman has no intention to shock – or provoke with his paintings, nor is he a moralist. A lot of what nowadays is presented as contemporary art needs an extensive explanation. Art critics and museum directors set themselves up as modern oracle interpreters. All too often the visual product is merely an illustration of a poor idea, rather than an independent work of art. Many artists don’t take their public seriously and resultantly put themselves in the position of somewhat arrogant school teachers. Rather than offend them, Huisman illustrates a respect for his spectators and it is his intention to contribute to their peace of mind. He wonders whether it is still possible – without literally going back to classical techniques and images – to create paintings with the tranquillity, the spatial quality and the inner consistency he experiences in the works of Hans Memling, – or, indeed, some landscapes by Sisley or Pissaro; – a mental condition he also discovered in prints from Japanese artists like Hiroshige. He is searching for constants in the way painting has developed through the ages. From this point of view Etruscan tomb paintings are of equal importance as would be fifteenth century Italian frescos or some of the works of Russian constructivists. Huisman is not working in a tradition for its own sake; – he in truth maintains values that are still of vital importance, and nourishes them with his own experiences.

Immediately after he graduated at the Academy in Arnhem in 1984, Wessel Huisman became Managing Director of the same institute. From then onwards he has had numerous exhibitions throughout Europe, especially in The Netherlands, Germany, Italy and Switzerland. His work has also been exhibited in Asia – Japan, Vietnam and South Korea. Since 2006 he has worked full-time as a visual artist and photographer.
Bruges/Belgium, November 2011
Dr. G.Teixeira de Mattos, reporter and analyst, specialised in light measurements.
² Adolfo Natalini is a Italian architect who realised a great number of projects in The Netherlands in the last decenniums. See: Huisman, W., Nella luce della Realtà, Dieren, 2000, p.10,11

A Dutch tradition
For more than twenty years, the Dutch painter Wessel Huisman uses almost only black and white paint, to paint light. His light. Throughout his study at the Academy of Fine Arts and Design in Arnhem (NL) he was fascinated by the working of light. After years of artistic training in which he developed his skills, he saw himself confronted with a very simple but crucial question: how do I make light material? What does that mean, how should I apply my paint in a way that – taking into account all the possibilities and impossibilities of the material – light becomes paint and, at the same time, paint becomes light? He never wanted or felt a strong urge to work in any kind of tradition. But during the years he realized that his fascination for clarity and, linked to that, a certain notion of space in his paintings, fitted perfectly within a very rich Dutch tradition. Predecessors like Memling, Rembrandt, Vermeer, van Gogh and Mondrian are just a few examples of this vital Dutch phenomenon, although all these artists developed different ways of expression. Also in Huisman’s way of working, it is not a matter of tradition for the sake of tradition as such. The past can never be the standard for the now, when it has no meaning in the present. Tradition always needs to be linked to ‘renaissance’, to re-birth. In that light, painting means also keep alive a language of images, a language which has a specific material side. Although already existing for thousands of years, painting can still be as vital and fresh as ever, as long as you are willing to learn to use it, as long as you are willing to take time and pay attention to read it.

Bruges, February 2007 Dr. Giovanni Teixeira de Mattos
Reporter, specialized in light measurements

Manifesto
In recent discussions in the world of art production and art critic there is a growing opposition against the common arrogance of the global cultural elite and many of the values they stand for. The New Florence Biennale plays an active role in this, by redefining the relationship between art and society, and the position of the artist at the beginning of the 21st century. In a number of discussions I had with its staff, I noticed we share a lot of insights. It is not the context to give extensive argumentations; read this text as a Manifesto, as a ‘cri de coeur’!

‘Vital Gestures’, the title of my presentation at the Florence Biennale in 2011 intended, in a positive sense, to oppose the fashionable cynicism and decadency in Western culture. Instead, it was meant to re-establish the notion of beauty in an actual way. Let’s agree on this: an experience of beauty is an individual experience. No piece of art can claim to be beautiful on its own account. A beautiful painting, object or piece of music refers to personal sensitivities, and by doing that, it reveals you who you are. Experiencing beauty brings you much more than just a cosy moment; it is none less than the recognition of your own existence. People who deny beauty, deny themselves. In the world of art critics and curators, however, for quite some years it is fashionable to proclaim that we have done with beauty and that art is more than ‘just to please people’. But is it not the greatest achievement of art, that it affects the individual self, and contributes to the consciousness of your own existence in such a powerful way?

Not only my experiences as an artist, but also my background as an historian helped me to see things in the wider perspective of time and development and not to embrace the trendy opinions. Since more than a century making art pretends to be a pseudo science; the creative process is limited by concepts, and by opinions. Art reflection is strongly affected by new trends in philosophy. As a consequence, artists and critics feel the need to refer to contemporary philosophical systems to explain or to justify their drives and convictions. Although I appreciate Marcel Duchamps for his artistic achievements – not doubt about that! – he was ‘simply’ a child of his time, an insight hardly any art historian and many artists will agree with. Like B.C. and A.D., in modern art critic the distinction is made between before and after Duchamps. Let us have a closer look at the present criteria by which contemporary art is judged. Art has to renew, to be modern/provocative/it’s time ahead/avant-garde, but at the same time it has to reflect the Zeitgeist, it should be flexible like fashion with its constant changing trends. But who is aware of the fact that it was the other godfather of Modernism, Baudelaire – as Peter Gay explained in his book about Modernism(2007) – who proclaimed these criteria over a century and a half ago! No one will oppose to the statement that the social, political and mental conditions of the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century differ fundamentally from those at the beginning of the 21st century. So why still use these old fashioned criteria uncritically as absolute standards to judge contemporary art?

As an historian, for many years I studied the phenomenon of social uprising. Among others, one thing became very clear to me: real renewal, real changes in society are never introduced by the ruling elite. Because its existence and interests are deeply rooted in the status quo. The art world is no exception, even though its representatives paradoxically claim provocation as their tool and innovation as their ultimate goal! I am convinced that real changes in this situation can only be initiated by independent, individual artists sensitive to their time.

Let’s free ourselves from the darlings that put us in chains, let’s get rid of the dominance of the old convictions of a century and more ago. Let’s oppose against the dictatorship of the lackeys of Duchamps and Baudelaire in the same way those artists opposed against the 19th century cultural elite. Let’s get rid of the compulsion to formulate concepts as the only justification of your artistic activities. Be aware of the fact that experiencing reality is so much richer than any concept can contain. Real autonomy, real freedom means that, inspired by historical consciousness, as an artist you grasp the only moment you have – the now. While giving shape to that here and now, you create Reality! In doing that, you redefine the art criteria and esthetical standards, valid for this era!

Wessel J. Huisman Dieren/The Netherlands, September 2013

Summary project light writing
After seeing documentation of my work Mrs. Amélie Edgü, director of Millî Reasürans Art Gallery/Istanbul and I, concluded that we share a strong interest in architecture. To be more precise: the creation of space or the representation of space in which the play of light is the determining factor. We discovered a common interest in the Modern movement where the artists and architects who were related to the Dutch movement De Stijl, German Bauhaus and Russian Constructivists played a decisive role. Apart from fine arts exhibitions and projects, Mrs. Edgü presents the works of leading Turkish and foreign architects in the gallery and edits monographs on their works as well. Furthermore, Mrs. Edgü and I also share a common interest in history.

I never focused on working in a certain tradition, but during the years I realized that my fascination for clarity, and my link to spatiality and depth, is in fact part of a rich Dutch tradition. The essence of the project Light Writing was that we wanted to confront my way of working with the approach of leading Turkish architects in order to create room in a given three-dimensional situation. The decisive element in this meeting of two worlds is the use of light/white. How does light give shape to a constructed space and what is my response as a painter to these room impressions. While selecting we decided not to limit ourselves to contemporary architecture only. We also wanted to involve different types of buildings, from large public projects and mosques to private houses.

Interview 'The Art of Business Travel'
1. Were you the kid who spent most of his leisure time in art museums? Where did your passion for art come from?

My fascination for art grew when I was seventeen, eighteen years old but I didn’t attend the academy of fine arts immediately after high school. Only after finishing my study of social and economic history in university with honors – history was one of my other fascinations! – I wanted to counterbalance my intellectual training and went to the art academy. As a kid I was an outdoor guy, playing football, or wandering in the woods and along the river close to my house. When I was fourteen, fifteen I started exploring the countryside by bicycle. The open Dutch landscape is all about light and space. If you want put it like that, my passion for art came from reality! The desire to express myself in drawings and paintings developed as part of a growing consciousness that there’s much more in life than a successful career or materialistic satisfaction. At the same time, during the last years of high school, I had several experiences of what you could call ‘pure beauty’; most of them related to this combination of light, space, nature and of course the seaside. These sensations put my compass in the right direction.

2. Among many other subjects, why did you choose to paint light? What or who inspired you?

The observation of what light does to the landscape or a building, a town triggered my fascination. Not in terms of a scientific research, but as an overwhelming inspiring, yelling energy. You could say by and by I became an expert on light and ‘light atmosphere’, because of my almost thirty years of focus on this. It was not on purpose but in the course of years that I realized that my work fits in a famous Dutch tradition of light painting, with ancestors like Rembrandt, Vermeer, Van Gogh and…Mondrian! I developed an ability to capture light circumstances in paint in quite a unique way.

3. Why did you select Hong Kong, Beijing and Shanghai as the features of The Colour of Light?

I selected these cities because they are so different in history, atmosphere and outlook. Many artists nowadays turn to the interpretations of intellectual gurus or philosophers to catch the ‘spirit of the age’. I prefer to look at the people, the way they live, the space they create and recreate. The desires offered and purchased. Although I am and artist in heart and soul, I still also make use of the training I got as a historian, the insights in what development means in the course of ages. Every place, whether city or village, has its own atmosphere, its own expression caused by local conditions. The light circumstances are of great influence. It is not only a basic necessity to see things, the condition of the light determines the mood of reality.

4. How often do you travel to Hong Kong? What is your impression of this city?

I visited Hong Kong last November for the first time. But I guess it is part of my training to observe and absorb the light and spatial impressions and store them. There is an interesting paradox in a town like Hong Kong. The modern city seems to deny the unique past and local circumstances. If you see Central or Admiralty with its prestigious buildings and famous locations, Hong Kong is a twenty first century modern city, with all the luxury you also find in New York, London, Tokyo or Paris. Visiting the shopping malls on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon I experienced an all but unique world, determined by the esthetical features offered by all the fancy brands of this moment. Talking to people I noticed there is a desire to get away from these standard aesthetics. An awareness that the by the advertisement promoted individual lifestyle has paradoxically little real personal elements. In that respect good art, reflecting the personal drives of the artist, can make the difference. I want to communicate with my audience on this personal level. I am always searching for the ‘human measure’.

The iconic drawing by Leonardo da Vinci not only reflects the ideal physical measures, but is also metaphor for men’s immaterial needs and desires. In that respect my work fits in a rich humanist tradition which has its roots in Italy and The Netherlands.

5. You did a lot of research on constants in art history. Can you explain why?

I wonder whether it is still possible – without literally going back to classical techniques and images – to create paintings with the tranquillity, the spatial quality and the inner consistency I experience in the works of the fifteen century Flemish painter Hans Memling, – or, indeed, some landscapes by Sisley or Pissaro; – a mental condition I also discover in prints from Japanese artists like Hiroshige. I am searching for constants in the way painting has developed through the ages. From this point of view Etruscan tomb paintings are of equal importance as would be fifteenth century Italian frescos or some of the works of Russian constructivists. I am not working in a tradition for its own sake; – I in truth maintain values that are still of vital importance, and nourishes them with my own experiences.

6. How’s the art scene in Hong Kong different from the Netherlands’? What’s lacking here?

I think there’s more resemblance than differences between The Netherlands and Hong Kong. In general the last forty, fifty years the making of art seems pretty much under the influence of the same mechanisms that determine the fashion world. Branding, hype, new are the magic words in the art scene. In fact I don’t like the idea of ‘the art scene’, as an unified community with one expression, policy and opinion. Good artists are very individual people, following their own drives and motives. In that respect Dutch artists have the same responsibility as their Hong Kong colleagues towards their artistic conscience. Let them be aware of their cultural inheritance, let them revive these notions, instead of coping with the international prescribed standards!

7. How difficult is it for an artist to exhibit his work outside his country?

Still studying in the academy I noticed there is an interesting paradox in the making and acceptance of art. It is my conviction that only when you follow your own dreams and desires as an artist, you can make meaningful things. Also an artist you are a child of your time. You are influenced by your historical and cultural environment. But on the level of the essential notions of human existence, national or cultural differences are less important. When your art derives from that consciousness your works are understood much more easily everywhere. I did a lot of shows, fairs and biennales all over the world. I met so many people with different cultural backgrounds, who were touched by what I do in a very direct way. Without words, without explanation. I enjoy getting this personal feedback. On this level I believe in globalization.

8. You mentioned light can give spectators back their history; can you explain how does it works?

During the last twenty five years I realized that I have a kind of light archive in my head. Very often I recognize light circumstances related to my own youth when I see photographs taken under totally different circumstances. Light triggers my memory like a smell can bring back old memories in an instant. I noticed that a lot of people are not aware of this sensibility, but it is there. Through my paintings I trigger that mechanism. So often people tell me ‘this painting is so familiar to me, but I can’t put my finger on it’. It is not the image as such, but the light quality they recognize. In fact I have seen all the light qualities and contrasts already in real. You could say that I am an expert on memories as well! It is no coincidence that I studied history as well. The past has always fascinated me. It is not so much a romantic longing, but rather the notion that earlier experiences form references to cope with the present day. A kind of time travel which always ends in the Now.

9. Your previous works were mostly in black and white; what made you change your approach and incorporate other hues into your recent paintings? Which is more challenging?

For years I only used all kinds of grey, black and white layers to build up my paintings. Since I was interested in light and light contrasts, I skipped the outspoken colours like red or blue. It was also a way to make the paintings more abstract. Recently however I noticed I could integrate colour tones in my paintings to specify the atmosphere of the light. It is not my intention to follow the natural colours. It depends on the subject which pallet I choose. The title of the new collection refers to this change in approach. Every painting is a challenge, no matter what the subject or the pallet is!

10.What are the art trends in Asia?

To be honest I find a lot of Asian art and art in general rather cosy, pleasing in a superficial way. Nice to put on your wall. Colorful, based on traditional or popular forms or images, like manga or other comics. And of course a lot fancy photography. Like I explained before, the language of drawing and painting is so rich and powerful, with its numerous forms of expression. Its long tradition makes it a challenge to renew its expression. The so called high end contemporary art displayed in the museums and top galleries is quite intellectual/conceptual. Asia forms in that respect no exception. Artists reflect on art or on sociological and political issues, whereas according to me the meaning of art, is to reflect on life itself. Art as the individual statement or sign of life. In that respect the situation in Hong Kong differs little from The Netherlands or other European countries.

11. For an in-depth art experience, which city should we head to? Why?

Go to Paris, New York, London Amsterdam, Madrid, Florence, Rome or St. Petersburg. All the major cities in the world have huge -timeless- collections. The richness is overwhelming. You can wander through a city like Florence for days, weeks, without being fed up. And not only because of the churches and museums. See the light changing the shape of the city, the buildings, the hills around the old center, the beautiful gardens. Pure paradise! But the greatest of all in-depth art experience is life itself. That’s the source of all great art. Your life, the greatest treasure you have!

I wonder whether it is still possible – without literally going back to classical techniques and images – to create paintings with the tranquillity, the spatial quality and the inner consistency I experience in the works of Hans Memling, – or, indeed, some landscapes by Sisley or Pissaro; – a mental condition I also discover in prints from Japanese artists like Hiroshige. I am searching for constants in the way painting has developed through the ages. From this point of view Etruscan tomb paintings are of equal importance as would be fifteenth century Italian frescos or some of the works of Russian constructivists. I am not working in a tradition for its own sake; – I in truth maintain values that are still of vital importance, and nourishes them with my own experiences.

Curriculum vitae
Lives and works in Dieren/The Netherlands

1954 Born in Breda(NL)

1981 Radboud University Nijmegen, M.A. Economic and Social History
1984 Academy of Fine Arts and Design Arnhem, M.A.

1984-2006 Managing Director of The ArtEZ Academy of Fine Arts and Design, Arnhem
1990 member of the artist association Malkasten in Düssel¬dorf
2004 Victoria Price city of Doetinchem
2011 4th Price ‘Il Lorenzo Magnifico’ for painting, Biennale Florence/Italy
2013 3rd Price ‘Il Lorenzo Magnifico’ for painting, Biennale Florence/Italy
2014 Premio Telethon, Small Wonders Exhibition at LINEA Gallery, Florence
2015 2nd Price ‘Il Lorenzo Magnifico’ for painting, Biennale Florence/Italy


Selection of exhibitions:

2016
Fabrik Gallery Hong Kong
VIP lounge Asia Contemporary Art Show, Hong Kong
2015
X Biennale Florence*, Italy
Villa La Ferdinanda, Artimino/Prato, Italy
Art The Hague*, The Hague, NL
Berliner Liste*, Berlin, Germany
Deelen Art, Rotterdam, NL
Grachtengalerie, Utrecht, NL
Hekkelman Advocaten en Notarissen, Arnhem, NL
Museum Mondriaanhuis*, Amersfoort, NL
Seasons Galleries, Den Haag, NL
Galerie Terbeek, Beetsterzwaag, NL
Art Knokke*, Knokke, Belgium
2014
Art Fusion Galleries*, Miami, US
Art Breda*, NL
AAF* ’s Hertogenbosch, NL
Galerie Terbeek*, Beetsterzwaag, NL
Deelen Art, Rotterdam, NL
Small Wonders*, LINEA, Florence
Villa La Ferdinanda, Artimino, Italy
Shanghai Art Fair 2014, China
2013
Shanghai Art Fair 2013*, China
Florence Biennale 2013*, Florence, Italy
Art Fusion Galleries*, Miami, US
Mark Peet Visser Gallery*, s Hertogenbosch
Travalco*, Miami, US
Small Wonders/LINEA*, Florence, Italy
Stedelijke Verbeelding/Grachtengalerie*, Utrecht, NL
Realisme 13/PTA*, Amsterdam, NL
2012
Songijang Art Museum*, China
Shanghai Art Fair 2012*, China
Town Hall Rheden, NL
LINEA, Firenze, Italy
Seasons Galleries, Den Haag, NL
Selimiye Mosque, Dieren, NL
Realisten/Galerie Mark Peet Visser*, ‘s Hertogenbosch, NL
2011
Galerie Rademakers, Amsterdam, NL
Kloosterkerk, Den Haag, NL
Lineart*, Gent, Belgium
Biennale Florence*, Italy
2010
Dutch Art Now!* New York, USA
Kyurang Art Festival*, Seoul, South Korea
Art Antique*, Utrecht, NL
2009
AAF*, London, England
Seasons Galleries, Den Haag, NL
Galerie Rademakers, Amsterdam, NL
2008
Galerie Mark Peet Visser, Heusden, NL
University of Fine Arts/Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Concert Hall HCMC, Vietnam
University of Fine Arts Hanoi, Vietnam
2007
The mountain entire fine arts/Galerie Chemin, Kyoto/Japan
Alledaags/hedendaags/Kunstenlab Deventer, NL
Galerie Rademakers, Amsterdam, NL
2006
Realisme 06*/PTA, Amsterdam, NL
AFA*, Den Bosch, NL
Art London*, London, England
Seasons galleries, Den Haag, NL
2005
Galerie Mark Peet Visser, Heusden, NL
2004
Galerie Moosgasse, Kempen, Germany
2003
Gemeentehuis Doetinchem, Doetinchem, NL
Seasons Galleries, Den Haag, NL
2002
Rosa Spier Huis, Laren, NL
De Hofvijver in poëzie en beeld*, Den Haag, NL
Kunst RAI*, Amsterdam, NL
Zentrum für Niederlande-Studien, Münster, Germany
2001
Kunsthaus Elbers, Kleve, Germany
2000
Art Rotterdam*, Rotterdam, NL
ABN AMRO Bank, Düsseldorf, Germany
Villa Il Cedro, Florence, Italy
Art Twente*, Hengelo, NL
1998
Lippische Gesellschaft für Kunst, Detmold, Germany
Städtisches Museum Kalkar, Kalkar, Germany
Galerie Trost, Lippstadt, Germany
1997
Kunsthuis 13, Velp , NL
La Barbagianna, Florence, Italy
Seasons Galleries, Den Haag, NL
Galerie Trost, Lippstadt, Germany
Galerie Van Nuland*, Breda, NL
Art Cologne*, Keulen, Germany
Stedelijk Museum, Zutphen, NL
1996
Akzo Nobel, Arnhem, NL
Galerie Van Wijngaarden, Amsterdam, NL
Galleria Morgana, Florence, Italy
1995
Galleria Il Sole, Perugia, Italy
Museum voor Moderne Kunst “De Paviljoens”, Almere, NL
Hoofdkantoor Dresdner Bank, Krefeld, Germany
Hekkelman Terheggen & Rieter, NL
1994
Kunst RAI*, Amsterdam, NL
Galerie Van Wijngaarden, Amsterdam , NL
1993
Galerie Königstrasse, Dresden, Germany
Gemeentelijke Kredietbank De Dam, Amsterdam, NL
Orangerie Schloss Benradt, Düsseldorf, Germany
De Gruytpoort, Doetinchem, NL
1992
Galerie Van Wijngaarden, Amsterdam, NL
Schweizerischer Künstlerverein*, Luzern, Switzerland
Galerie Ilverich, Düsseldorf, Germany
1991
K.V. Malkasten, Düsseldorf, “Raumansichten”, Germany
Galerie W & A, Düsseldorf, Germany
Interart*, Moskou, Russia
1990
Galerie Epikur, Wuppertal, Germany
Galerie W & A, Düsseldorf, Germany
1985
Galerie Nouvelles Images*, Den Haag, NL

* Group exhibitions

Bio (pdf) Folder 2016 (pdf)